Gunung Mutis Nature Reserve is famous for its mountains of marble stone by local people called Faut Kanaf or stone name. This tourist area is about 140 km from the northeast of the city of Kupang and an area of approximately 12,000 hectares. This nature reserve areas inhabited by one of the oldest tribes in the Tribal Dhawan NTT.
Kawasan Wisata Gunung Mutis has vegetation types that are representative of a homogeneous upland forests. This area is also dominated by various types of ampupu (Eucalyptus urophylla) and sandalwood (Santalum album). Besides these two types of plants, there's a variety of other types such as ferns, grasses, etc..
Fauna of this region is equally rich. In this area, visitors can see the Timor deer (Cervus timorensis), possum, timor monitor lizard (Varanus timorensis), Timor pythons (Python timorensis), pigeon Timor (Treon psittacea), parrot Timor (Apromictus jonguilaceus), Timor Imperial-pigeon (Ducula cineracea) , etc..
Another interesting thing to watch is how the native tribes of this region using branches and twigs of trees to build houses for the forest bees producing honey. For local communities, forest bees to help them sustain the economic life of the livestock and agriculture.
Kawasan Wisata Gunung Mutis Nature Reserve is located in the subdistrict of North Mollo, South Central Timor.
To reach the area of Mount Mutis Nature Reserve can be done through three channels, ie from the south, east and north. From the south and east through South Central Timor, where upon arrival at Kapan (City of North Molo District) path to the location of Gunung Mutis Nature Reserve is divided into two directions namely, the south toward the Village Fatumnasi (49 Km from Soe, TTS District City) , and the east through the Village Bonleu (30 Km from SoE, City District TTS). While from the north through the North Central Timor.
Regions Mount Mutis Nature Reserve is located in the northwestern part of Timor Island, The administration of Mount Mutis Nature Reserve located in two districts of South Central Timor and Timor Tengah Utara.
Overall topographic conditions Mutis Forest group is heavy with hilly to mountainous relief and the state side until the steep slopes. While the field conditions the area of Mount Mutis Nature Reserve and surrounding undulating to mountainous, most of the area has a slope of 60% to top. The highest peak is Mount Mutis with altitude 2427 meters above sea level.
Geological formations in Mutis Forest Group - Timau (Timor Island) part composed of the series and Sonebait fraction of Kekneno series. Sekis crystal, Middle Rocks Wet, Wet Stone, Stone Meogen and Paleogene sediments.
Soil types found in Timau Mutis region consists of a complex land with mountains of complex shapes and types of soil in the form of mountains mediterium fold.
Gunung Mutis and surrounding areas are the wettest areas on the island of Timor, it rained almost every month with the highest frequency of rainfall occurs during November to July, temperatures range between 14'C - 29'C, and the condition can be dropped to extremely 9'C. High-speed winds occurred in November until March.
Rain conditions almost every month throughout the year, allowing the area of Mount Mutis Nature Reserve is a major water source for three Watershed (DAS) of the island of Timor is Noelmina and Noel Benain in the south and Noel Fail in the north. River flow drainage pattern dendritis (Mina and Noel Noel Benain) as a result of the complexity of the surface in the south and parallel patterns (Noel Fail) due to a relatively uniform slope in the north.
There are six villages directly bordering the Nature Reserve of Mount Mutis Tutem Village, Bonleu, Pineapple, Nuapin, Nunbena and Fatumnasi.
Regions Mount Mutis Nature Reserve and surrounding areas including the rain forest type that is relatively homogenous and dominated by species ampupu (Eucalyptus Urophylla). Another type of prominent after ampupu is Podocarpus sp, Mig and casuarinas junghuniana Celtis wightii Planch canopies that form the second layer beneath the canopy ampupu.
Forest vertically Mount Mutis Nature Reserve can be seen composed of three layers of tree canopies. The top layer as high as 35 to 45 meters, the second layer between 15 - 25 meters and a third layer of shrubs on a small tree with a height of 2 to 5 meters.
Each layer is dominated by certain types, the top layer of trees generally ampupu (Eucalyptus Urophylla), the second layer by Tune tree (Podocarpus sp) and Celtis Wiqhtii Planch, is the third layer is the Belta type Natwon (Daphiniphyllum Glancescens BI) is spread evenly at the bottom.
In general it can be said that the forest is relatively homogeneous observation location and grow naturally. This can be seen from the small number of tree species recorded in the plot area of 1 ha samples. Apart from the number of very small type, tegakannya also dominated by one type of tree. From the sample plots recorded 15 species of trees, with dominant species Eucalyptus urophylla which has important value
Although this forest homogeneous, not like a tropical rain forest, tree density was realtif. Limited number of location observations, but due to large sample of relatively small plot also allegedly caused by environmental conditions rather extreme. These circumstances limit the number of species able to adapt to the local area. Environmental conditions expected as the border is the condition of the surface topography, wind pressure, temperature, weather conditions, zoning, livestock activities, logging and agricultural practices moving.
No different from a state tree, Belta location is also less number of species and dominated by one particular type. Belta plot of sample size of 10m x 10m were recorded only 9 species. The most dominant types are Daphniphyllum Glaucescens.
Ampupu trees have shallow roots, although this plant can reach diameter of more than 2 meters and 45 meters high, the result easily uprooted trees when blown by strong winds.
At the bottom of the tree stands are slightly open and ampupu many types of grass grown. In the area of Mount Mutis Nature Reserve seemed not meadow overgrown by shrubs and even trees datau other herbs. These grasslands are primarily cattle pasture surrounding area residents